Tuesday, December 12, 2017

Mika:Trump’s Derogatory and Disgusting Tweet Suggest Gillibrand Would Ha...

'I will not be silent': Kirsten Gillibrand responds to Trump Twitter attack (click here).

President Trump has openly BRAGGED about his sexual assaults on women. It is time it become part of the permanent record. US Senator Gillibrand has been instrumental in bringing these issues to the floor of the US Senate. She has been instrumental in addressing sexual assault in the military (click here).

This is an important issue and no one should be attempting to silence 
Senator Gillbrand or prevent any investigation into the assaults on women by President Trump.

December 12, 2017
By Melissa Mahtani

Democratic Rep. Eric Swalwell of California (click here) condemned President Donald Trump's Tuesday morning tweet attacking Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand, calling it "ugly and suggestive."

"It's beneath the office of the presidency for him to conduct himself that way," Swalwell told CNN.

At 8:03 a.m., the President tweeted: "Lightweight Senator Kirsten Gillibrand, a total flunky for Chuck Schumer and someone who would come to my office 'begging' for campaign contributions not so long ago (and would do anything for them), is now in the ring fighting against Trump. Very disloyal to Bill & Crooked-USED!"

This issue is not about Senator Gillibrand's integrity. She has a remarkable career and wonder life at home as a woman. This is about the misconduct of President Trump and his history of assaulting women. 

President Trump's tweets are nothing short of bullying.

December 12, 2017
By John Bowden

Oregon Sen. Jeff Merkley (D) (click here) on Tuesday reiterated his call for President Trump's resignation, explaining on CNN that the women who are accusing Trump should be treated the same as other victims of sexual misconduct.

Merkley told CNN's "New Day" that Trump's accusers should be heard and have their chance to tell their stories.

"I think we should give full opportunity for these women who the president completely discounted and said are inauthentic, unbelievable, never happened. It's only fair that we give them the full chance to tell their story before the American people," Merkley said.

When pressed by host Alisyn Camerota on why he would call for the president's resignation before hearing the women speak, Merkley responded that it came down to "accountability."

"Well, it's fundamental accountability," Merkley responded. "Alisyn, there were over 40 senators that said it was the right thing for Sen. Franken (D-Minn.) to step down. But if you believe that that's the case, wouldn't you also believe that it's the right thing for the president to step down? Who has a far more serious set of stories."

"He's grabbed women's butts, he's grabbed their breasts, he's grabbed their genitals. He's bragged about it in a variety of forms," Merkley continued. "It's just a horrendous list of treatment of women, and this is why if you called for Franken to step down, don't you have to also say it's the right thing for the president to step down?"...

December 12, 2017

On Monday, 56 House lawmakers (click here) with the Democratic Women’s Working Group wrote a joint letter calling for a congressional investigation into the allegations against Trump. They are joined by five U.S. senators who’ve called for Trump to resign—Cory Booker, Bernie Sanders, Jeff Merkley, Ron Wyden and New York Democrat Kirsten Gillibrand, who spoke on CNN.

Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand: “President Trump should resign. These allegations are credible; they are numerous. I’ve heard these women’s testimony, and many of them are heartbreaking.”...

December 12, 2017
By Madeline Aggeler

In a particularly crass tweet on Monday morning, (click here) President Trump derided New York senator Kristen Gillibrand, saying that she would come to his office “‘begging’ for campaign contributions not so long ago (and would do anything for them.)” A few hours later, Senator Elizabeth Warren came to Gillibrand’s defense, accusing Trump of bullying, intimidation, and slut-shaming.

Warren’s use of the term “slut-shame” isn’t quite accurate, because it implies Gillibrand did do the kind of “begging” Trump claimed, and is being unfairly shamed for it — more accurate terms for what the president did might be “flagrantly spouted misogynistic nonsense,” or “rage-tweeted like a petulant teen.”...

Climate Action 100+...

...doesn't address the private family companies like Koch Industries.

July 19, 2016
By Riley Snyder

Charles and David Koch might be two of the people happiest about Senate Democratic Leader Harry Reid’s impending retirement.

The Nevada Democrat’s undisguised disdain for the billionaire brothers’ bankrolling of conservative groups is well-documented, and Reid’s long crusade against the Kochs isn’t letting up as he nears retirement.

Kicking off a coordinated effort to draw attention towards conservative-leaning nonprofits and climate change skeptics, Reid zeroed in on the Kochs and accused them of being worse polluters than major oil companies.

"The company is among the worst in toxic air pollution in the entire United States," he said during a July 11 floor speech. "Koch Industries churns out more climate-changing greenhouse gases than oil giants Chevron, Shell and Valero."

They own the companies.

Climate Action 100+ (click here) is a five-year initiative led by investors to engage with the world’s largest corporate greenhouse gas emitters to improve governance on climate change, curb emissions and strengthen climate-related financial disclosures. To date, 225 investors with more than USD $26.3 trillion in assets under management have signed on to the initiative....

December 12, 2017
By Nicole Hasham

Shareholders (click here) have turned up the heat on the world's 100 biggest polluting companies including Australian firms BHP Billiton, Wesfarmers and Rio Tinto, in the first coordinated global effort by investors to force corporate action on climate change.

The Climate Action 100+ initiative, to be launched in Paris on Tuesday evening eastern standard time, will target 100 global companies responsible for an estimated 15 per cent of global emissions....

...Ms Herd cited Exxon Mobil, the world's biggest oil company, which was this year forced by a shareholder vote to be more transparent about the impact of climate change on its business.

"Engagement between investors and the companies they own is one of the core foundations of our economy and how it runs," she said.

If a company does not respond to investor demands on climate change, shareholder options include resolutions and votes, and divestment.

Investors who sign up to the effort can nominate companies to be added to the list.

Companies in the sectors of oil and gas, electricity and transport make up the bulk of the 100 companies. It also includes PepsiCo and Nestle, as well as the Wesfarmers group which includes Coles, Bunnings, Kmart, Target and Officeworks, as well as coal mine assets....

No subpoenas necessary. What is Congress waiting for?

Make these women safe. Women that speak out about sexual misconduct of men are hurt by their own stories. It is a strategy against women that has survived decades of mistreatment, assault, harassment and rape.

There are women at risk right now and no one is doing a darn thing about it. The USA has a diminished brain trust because women in the US Air Force Academy were sexually assaulted by other male cadets. They left. Their assailants graduated.

The USA has a real problem when it comes to defending the honor of women. It is time that problem ended. By this measure alone, women are still second class citizens valued as a sex object. The USA has to deal with it and it has to deal with it now!

11 December 2017

(L-R) Jessica Leeds, Samantha Holvey, and Rachel Crook

Three women (click here) who accused President Donald Trump of sexual misconduct have demanded a congressional inquiry.

At a New York City news conference, the trio accused Mr Trump of groping, fondling, forcibly kissing, humiliating or harassing them.

Three of them - Jessica Leeds, Samantha Holvey, and Rachel Crooks - detailed their allegations shortly beforehand live on television.

The White House said the women were making "false claims".

Monday morning's press conference was organised by Brave New Films, which last month released a documentary, 16 Women and Donald Trump, about the claims made by multiple women....

Monday, December 11, 2017

This is one of the professionals writing about Ukraine. It is not his first publication.

The "Euromaidan," Democracy and Political Values in Ukraine (click here)

By Ivan Katchanovski
University of Ottawa

Ivan Katchanovski (click here) teaches at the School of Political Studies at the University of Ottawa. He was Visiting Scholar at the Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at Harvard University, Visiting Assistant Professor at the Department of Politics at the State University of New York at Potsdam, Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Department of Political Science at the University of Toronto, and Kluge Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Kluge Center at the Library of Congress. He received his Ph.D. from the School of Policy, Government, and International Affairs at George Mason University....

This chapter examines (click here) the political system, attitudes towards democracy, and their determinants in Ukraine before, during and after the “Euromaidan.” The research question is as follows: What type of political system has emerged in Ukraine since the “Euromaidan?” The related research question is to what extent political values in Ukraine are supportive of democracy. This study is based on theories of democratic, semi-democratic, and authoritarian political systems, democratization, and political culture. This chapter compares political systems in Ukraine before, during and after the “Euromaidan.” It uses data from different waves of the International Foundation for Electoral Systems surveys, the Pew Global Attitudes surveys, and the World Values Surveys to examine attitudes towards democracy in Ukraine before and after the “Euromaidan” and to compare democratic preferences in Ukraine with those in Poland and Russia. This study also implements multiple regression analysis of the determinants of attitudes towards democracy. It discusses implications of its findings for the prospects for liberal democracy in Ukraine and for the international conflict over Ukraine....

Tears are shed for the brave.

10 December 2017
by Louis Kolumbia

Dar es Salaam — Tanzania People's Defence Forces (TPDF) (click here) has said the bodies of 14 soldiers killed during an attack in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) will arrive either on Tuesday or Wednesday.

Addressing a press conference on Sunday, December 10, the TPDF chief of staff, Lt-Gen James Mwakibolwa, said the government and the United Nations were collaborating to return the bodies of the fallen soldiers.

"TPDF has communicated with the families of the slain soldiers. The government will take appropriate measures, including investigating the incident at the scene," he said, noting that the names of slain soldiers would be disclosed later.

Describing the incident that claimed 14 lives of TPDF peacekeepers, wounding 44 with two still missing, Lt-Gen Mwakibolwa said the fallen soldiers were killed during an attack by the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF).... 

Unfortunately, when peacekeepers do their jobs well, this occurs. They stood their ground. They are very honorable people.

Reason for listing:

The Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) was listed on30 June 2014 pursuant to the criteria set out in paragraph 4 of resolution 2078 (2012).

Additional information:

The Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) was created in 1995 and is located in the mountainous DRC-Uganda border area. According to the United Nations Group of Experts on the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s (“GoE”) 2013 final report, citing Ugandan officials and UN sources, in 2013 the ADF had an estimated strength of 1,200 to 1,500 armed fighters located in north-east Beni Territory of North Kivu province, close to the border with Uganda. These same sources estimate ADF’s total membership — including women and children — to be between 1,600 and 2,500. Due to offensive military operations by the Congolese Armed Forces (FARDC) and the UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the DRC (MONUSCO) conducted in 2013 and 2014, ADF dispersed its fighters to numerous smaller bases, and moved women and children to areas west of Beni, and along the Ituri-North Kivu border. The ADF’s military commander is Hood Lukwago and its supreme leader is the sanctioned individual Jamil Mukulu.

The ADF has committed serious violations of international law and UNSCR 2078 (2012), including as detailed below.

The ADF has recruited and used child soldiers in violation of applicable international law (UNSCR paragraph 4 (d))....        

Heather Young's MILK will screen at Canada's Top Ten Film Festival in January

December 7, 2017
By Emma Smith

Halifax-based filmmaker (click here) Heather Young is booking herself another ticket to Toronto as her success at one of the world's largest international film festivals continues. 
The 35-year-old NSCAD University grad will screen her short film MILK in the new year at an event organized by the Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF). Canada's Top Ten Film Festival runs from Jan. 12-21 and features short and full-length films, as well as work by students.
While Young is the only Nova Scotian filmmaker selected this time around, the province has been well represented at TIFF thanks to filmmakers like Corey Bowles, who directed Black Cop, and Cape Breton's Ashley McKenzie, who directed Werewolf....

Zero tolerance is not a political strategy. It is to end the abuse of women and girls.

Senate Majority Leader, Mitch McConnell, is pathetic in response to Roy Moore. He stated, "The people of Alabama will decide." Really? They won't decide to their best interest if the airwaves of polluted with permission to vote for the unthinkable.

That is not leadership, that is a surrender to the plutocrats. Who owns the US Senate? I think the tax bill speaks that truth out loud.

December 7, 2017

Senator Bernie Sanders (click here) said Thursday that President Donald Trump should consider resigning because of the infamous tape on which he was heard bragging about committing sexual assault. Sanders, one of Trump’s sharpest critics, was speaking after calling on Democratic Senator Al Franken to step down amid a series of allegations of sexual misconduct.

Appearing on CBS This Morning, Sanders was asked why there is growing pressure on Franken to resign while Republican Roy Moore has not been forced to pull out of the U.S. Senate race in Alabama. In his response, Sanders took the conversation a step further—to the man sitting in the Oval Office.

“We have a president of the United States who acknowledged on a tape, widely seen all over the United States, that he assaulted women, so I would hope that maybe the president of the United States might pay attention to what’s going on and also think about resigning. But if your point is that it’s not just Al Franken, then you’re absolutely right.”...

There are rumors Vladimir Putin is running for President of Russia again.

11 December 2017

Russian President Vladimir Putin (click here) visited a Russian military air base in Syria on Monday and announced a partial pullout of Russian forces from the country.

Putin made a stopover at the Hemeimeem air base in Syria's coastal province of Latakia while en route to Egypt.

The base, in the heartland of Syrian President Bashar Assad's Alawite minority, has served as the main foothold for the Russian military campaign in Syria.

Speaking to the Russian troops at the base, Putin said that he had ordered the military to withdraw a "significant part" of the Russian contingent in Syria. He added in remarks carried by Russian news agencies that "if the terrorists again raise their heads, we will deal such blows to them they have never seen."...

3 March 2014

The trouble in Ukraine (click here) has left New Zealand in a critical position as it vies for selection to the United Nations Security Council, University of Otago politics professor Robert Patman says.

He said the heightened prospect of civil war in Ukraine, from Russia's incursion into Crimea, was ''the most challenging crisis for the world since the Syria situation''.

Foreign Minister Murray McCully had to move quickly to publicise New Zealand's stance on the issue, for favourable consideration in respect of Security Council selection in October, Prof Patman said....

Europe and NATO need to carry out their own investigation and bring about a resolve for the people of Ukraine.

December 11, 2017

An anti-corruption agency (click here) established in Ukraine two years ago was expected to be the driving force that would uproot the endemic graft that depleted the nation's resources and worried its Western allies.

But the National Anti-Corruption Bureau of Ukraine instead has come under fire from allies of President Petro Poroshenko who are trying to curtail its operations and authority.

NABU chief Artem Sytnik told The Associated Press in a weekend interview that fear is behind the recent attempts by political and business elites to weaken the agency that was supposed to be a visible symbol of reform in Ukraine.

"The old and new elites are quite scared" after realizing "there are no untouchables anymore," Sytnik said....

Putin will take the wiff of corruption in Ukraine and turn it into a nationalist battle cry. To be frank, disarming Ukraine's national military and setting up oligarch militias under Yanukovych is about as corrupt as it gets. That is complete intimidation of citizens. The freedom Ukraine wanted was removed under Yanukovych's Ukraine dominated by oligarchs and oppressors.

July 25, 2017
By Steven Pifer

Following the visit to Kyiv by NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg (click here) earlier this month, President Petro Poroshenko said Ukraine would seek to meet the alliance’s membership criteria by 2020. On July 17, he stated that Ukraine would pursue a membership action plan....

...To be clear, Ukraine as a sovereign state has a right to choose its orientation and to join alliances. All member states of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe—including Russia—accepted that in the 1975 Helsinki Final Act.

But NATO also has a say in who joins the alliance. It is difficult to see NATO saying yes to Ukraine in the foreseeable future.....

NATO is correct; Ukraine has yet to achieve a standard strong enough to be an ally of other countries already member states. NATO has to decide to investigate the corruption or abandon Ukraine as a failed state under it's current leadership. There maybe uncommon ground if President Petro Poroshenko is willing to move into agreements to purge the country of corruption while instilling a government worth consideration by The West.

China is a major power in the world and now everyone knows it.

I have to laugh at Plutocrats. They treat China as a market place and not a country. Wealth hungry plutocrats will rush to China to bring in cash flow so a CEO can actually say he is turning a profit for the company.

China is a major country that has been adding more and more military hardware to it's arsenal. It was a bit crippled about two decades ago, then it found scientists within it's ranks that has created an impressive navy, aircraft and space missions. China is more than a market place where plutocrats seek unfair profits, it is a country, a communist country and it is a powerful.

The best way for plutocrats to keep their immoral profits, is to beg for peace.

7 December 2017

Things are getting crowded (click here) in the airspace about North Korea, Taiwan, Okinawa and the South China Sea.

Beijing's been surging its combat aircraft into contested areas in a major demonstration of its strength - and as a warning to the United States and its Asian allies.

Beijing is being coy about exactly when and where it staged its demonstrations, choosing to reveal it had sent warplanes through "routes and areas it has never flown before" on the same day the US and South Korea launched large scale mock airstrikes involving 230 aircraft.

North Korea criticised the show of force, stating US President Donald Trump was "begging for nuclear war"....                 

The Polar Bear video has made it's rounds on the internet (click here for article). Because the bear is alone people assume this is a male. I think it has a female face.

"Morning Papers"

The Rooster


"Good Night, Moon"

The waning crescent

22.8 days old

43.1 percent lit

Last quarter moon (click here) will come on December 10, 2017 at 07:51 UTC; translate to your time zone. A last quarter moon always rises in the middle of the night, appears at its highest in the sky around dawn, and sets around midday.

A last quarter moon provides a great opportunity to think of yourself on a three-dimensional world in space. For example, it’s fun to see this moon just after moonrise, shortly after midnight. Then the lighted portion points downward, to the sun below your feet. Think of the last quarter moon as a mirror to the world you’re standing on. Think of yourself standing in the middle of Earth’s nightside, on the midnight portion of Earth.

Also, a last quarter moon can be used as a guidepost to Earth’s direction of motion in orbit around the sun.

Should have posted this last week:

Low in the western sky (click here) in the hours before dawn on Sunday, December 3, the path of the nearly full moon (shown in red) will carry it across the stars forming the triangular face of Taurus, passing in front of (or occulting) several bright stars as it goes. At around 9 a.m. EST, for observers in Central and northern Asia, northern Greenland, and northwestern North America, the moon will occult Aldebaran, Taurus' brightest star.

Sunday, December 10, 2017

I think the climate crisis is a human rights issue unlike any other.

Eugene S. Takle
1996, 2002, 2005, 2007

Half of the Earth's atmosphere (click here) lies within 5 km of the surface of the earth, three-fourths is located within ten km and 90% is within 16 km (10 miles). Among the many functions of this atmosphere are two that are critical to life as we know it: the atmosphere shields the surface of the earth from lethal ultraviolet radiation and allows life to exist on the surface of the planet. It also serves to process energy that comes from the sun and energy that is reradiated from the surface of the earth. Absorption of this energy establishes an average surface temperature that allows water to exist in all three phases -- liquid, solid, and vapor. The favorable environment established through these two functions allows for the flourishing of life on the planet over the past million years....

The book below can be found here (click here). Or one can pay not quite $200.00 for a hard copy. Rules of the road are long overdue.

"Assessing the Geochemical Fate of Deep Well Injected Hazardous Waste" (click here)

Atmospheric Pollution
History, Science and Regulation
Author: Mark Z. Jacobson
Stanford University, California
  • Date Published: September 2002

  • Atmospheric Pollution: (click here) History, Science, and Regulation provides a comprehensive introduction to the history and science of major air pollution issues. It begins with an introduction to the basic atmospheric chemistry and the history of discovery of chemicals in the atmosphere, then moves on to a discussion of the evolution of the earth’s atmosphere and the structure and composition of the present-day atmosphere. Subsequently, a comprehensive and accessible discussion of the five major atmospheric pollution topics – urban outdoor air pollution, indoor air pollution, acid deposition, stratospheric ozone reduction, and global climate change – is provided. Each chapter discusses the history and science behind these problems, their consequences, and the effort made through government intervention and regulation to mitigate them. The book contains numerous student examples and problems, more than 200 color illustrations, and is international in scope....

The USA does not even have an experimental model.

Advantages of Plasma Technology (click here):

- Plasma method utilizes efficiently all four types of hazardous, toxic or lethal waste because of high temperature, capable of disassociating molecular bonds.

- Plasma waste utilization method takes place in a close system, without releasing ashes, waste remnants, dusts and toxic gases into environment. Regained metals return to metallurgic industry and created slag is used as an additive to road construction materials. Non-toxic gases, which are created, are stored in special containers (gas cylinders) and used as fuel and energy creators.

- The volumetric waste reduction for most solid wastes is approximately 300 to 1. Conventional incineration ratio is in the range of 5 to 1 since large quantities of ash are produced.

- Plasma technology allows converting large quantities of municipal waste in the range of 10 to 500 tons a day.

- This method of waste reduction is the only method available to reduce electronic waste, which does not undergo biodegradation.

- The costs of using plasma technology are significantly reduced from $40/ton to ZERO as a result of creation of ecologic by-products. The costs of using conventional incineration are in the range of $100/ton.

- Contaminates in slag and gases created during plasma utilization with elements such as mercury, cadmium, sulphur, SO2, HCL, dioxins, selenium, chromium, lead, barium, arsenic, radioactive elements are strictly controlled by usage of special water or dry scrubbers and filters. Using this method elements are considerably minimized below environmental standards. The remainder of the pollutants sink into glassy slag and can be treated further in close system, which is a major distinction to conventional incineration.

- The ashes that are formed as a result of conventional incineration can be burned down to further using plasma technology to make them harmless.

- Contemporary plasma converters are computer controlled, safe, quiet and can be stationary or mobile.

- Plasma waste utilization will improve public health and safely achieve “total and irreversible destruction of hazardous and toxic compounds”, “lethal viruses, bacteria and prions that are so dangerous to our health.” (Startech Environmental Corp.)
A Canadian perspective:

...Great amounts of municipal wastes (click here) that are generated daily, lack of safe storage and processing costs cause threats to our health, drain taxpayers money and destroy delicate natural balance. These Wastes easily penetrate to ecosystem, contaminate soil, and ground water.

The Problem

Conventional waste utilisation methods certainly do not solve problems, because the harmful residues such as ash, dust, gases left behind can not be filtered off even with the usage of innovative technologies. Municipal waste problem is undoubtedly waiting for proper solutions....

...Very hot plasma is formed by ionized gas (i.e. Oxygen, under normal pressure) in the strong electrical arc with the power ranging from 2 to 20 Mega Watts. Temperature of such plasma is very high, ranging from 2 to 6 thousand degrees Celsius. In such high temperature all waste constituents, including metals, toxic materials, silicon, etc. are totally melted forming non–toxic dross. Plastic, biological and chemical compounds, toxic gases yield complete dissociation (required minimal dissociation temperature is in the range of 1500 degrees Celsius) into simpler gases mainly H2 and CO2. Simpler gases, mainly H2 can be used as ecological fuel to generate heat energy and electrical energy decreasing significantly (even to zero) cost of plasma formation and waste utilization. Regained metals from dissociation process can safely return to metallurgic industry, and slag can be used as an additive to road and construction materials.

The utilization of municipal waste using this method does not cause the emission of foul odours and does not produce a harmful ash, which is something that normally takes place in an incinerating plant....

To right:

Exterior image of 10 TPD thermal plasma gasification plant located in Cheongsong, Korea

Gasification is considered an incomplete combustion. This is necessary to bring down the emissions of NOX and SOX, better known as acid rain.

Gasification (click here) is most simply thought of as choked combustion or incomplete combustion. It is burning solid fuels like wood or coal without enough air to complete combustion, so the output gas still has combustion potential. The unburned gas is then piped away to burn elsewhere as needed.

Gas produced by this method goes by a variety of names: wood gas, syngas, producer gas, town gas, generator gas, and others. It’s sometimes also called biogas, though biogas more typically refers to gas produced via microbes in anaerobic digestion. In the context of biomass gasification using air-aspirated gasifiers, the term producer gas is the term we will be using, since the other terms have implications that do not necessarily apply to the gas produced by our gasifiers....

...Gasification is made up for five discrete thermal processes: DryingPyrolysisCombustionCracking, and Reduction...

Acid rain” (click here) (Acid Snow) became a household term in the 1980s when unchecked emissions from industry and motor vehicles were blamed for causing environmental deterioration. Scientific evidence has linked acid rain to decreased fish and wildlife populations, degraded lakes and streams, and human health hazards. Although the term has since faded from public consciousness, acid rain is a complex and global problem that still exists today.

Pyrolysis offers reduction of methane.

Carbon Offsets Generated (click here)

There are several avenues in which the technology can mitigate greenhouse gas evolution.

These include:

-Renewable energy generation (Displacing fossil fuel)
-Bio‐sequestration (Stabilising biochar carbon into terrestrial sinks);
-Reduced agriculture emissions (from reduced nitrous oxide from soil,fuel use, fertiliser use, and water use efficiency)
-Decreased emissions from waste biomass (including avoided methane generation from landfills and compost production);
-Increased agricultural productivity (increased biomass yields create a positive feedback loop).

The pyrolysis process is unique in that it can achieve carbon negative renewable energy generation. This is due to the fact that a portion of the GHG forming carbon in the fuel source is not released through the energy cycle, rather it is stabilised as the biochar product. If organics are not used as fuel they decompose relatively quickly, releasing the carbon naturally back to the atmosphere. Production of biochar however removes this material from the short‐term carbon cycle, into the long‐term carbon cycle. The co‐production of biochar along with renewable energy results in a significant net removal of GHGs from the atmosphere.

It should be noted that not all biochar technologies are carbon negative due to carbon leakage and poor combustion systems. It is essential that understanding, monitoring and auditing of the system is carried out to verify carbon offsets generated. The Pacific Pyrolysis system addresses excessively long distance transport distances through its distributed modular approach and complete capture and utilisation of syngas.           

Process of Pyrolysis

Published after the year 2000 (see references):

Pyrolysis (click here) is a form of treatment that chemically decomposes organic materials by heat in the absence of oxygen. Pyrolysis typically occurs under pressure and at operating temperatures above 430 ¡C (800 ¡F). In practice, it is not possible to achieve a completely oxygen-free atmosphere. Because some oxygen is present in any pyrolysis system, a small amount of oxidation occurs. If volatile or semi-volatile materials are present in the waste, thermal desorption will also occur.

Organic materials are transformed into gases, small quantities of liquid, and a solid residue containing carbon and ash. The off-gases may also be treated in a secondary thermal oxidation unit. Particulate removal equipment is also required. Several types of pyrolysis units are available, including the rotary kiln, rotary hearth furnace, and fluidized bed furnace. These units are similar to incinerators except that they operate at lower temperatures and with less air supply.

A molten salt process may also be used for waste pyrolysis. In molten-salt oxidation (MSO), combustible waste is oxidized in a bath of molten salts (at 500–950¡C). There is no direct flame, and this prevents many of the problems associated with incineration. Shredded solid waste is injected with air under the surface of a molten salt bath. Hot gases rise through the molten salt bath. The salt, being alkaline, scrubs acids from the gases. The heat of the molten salt degrades and melts the waste material. Because the salt bath is liquid, it also removes some particles in the gas. Byproducts are retained in the melt. Gases exiting the salt bath are treated before discharge to the atmosphere. Spent molten salt is tapped from the reactor, cooled, and placed in a landfill.

Limitations and Concerns

The technology requires drying of soil prior to treatment.

Limited performance data are available for systems treating hazardous waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, and other organics. There is concern that systems that destroy chlorinated organic molecules by heat have the potential to create products of incomplete combustion, including dioxins and furans. These compounds are extremely toxic in the parts per trillion range. The MSO process reportedly does not produce dioxins and furans.

The molten salt is usually recycled in the reactor chamber. However, depending on the waste treated (especially inorganics) and the amount of ash, spent molten salt may be hazardous and require special care in disposal.

Pyrolysis is not effective in either destroying or physically separating inorganics from the contaminated medium. Volatile metals may be removed as a result of the higher temperatures associated with the process, but they are not destroyed. Byproducts containing heavy metals may require stabilization before final disposal.

When the off-gases are cooled, liquids condense, producing an oil/tar residue and contaminated water. These oils and tars may be hazardous wastes, requiring proper treatment, storage, and disposal....